The last two bodies reflect the distinction between two forms of intelligence. However, the distinction was purely formal and organisational, as the Intelligence Act placed the two directorates under the responsibility of the Secretariat of Intelligence, which was the higher body of the National Intelligence System. The latter remains essentially the same. The Deputy Director, with the rank of State Secretary, is appointed in the same way.
The National Directorate of Criminal Intelligence is placed under the Ministry of Security and is limited to criminal intelligence Section 9. The head of the Directorate is appointed by the Minister of Interior.
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The National Directorate of Military Strategic Intelligence is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Defense and is strictly restricted to foreign counterintelligence. The head of the Directorate is appointed by the Minister of Defense. Before the institutional change, Eduardo Estevez had remarked that while each body of the National Intelligence System had clearly described responsibilities.
In reality, the scheme made the most important agency — the Secretariat of Intelligence — the only body that was truly expected to be held accountable. As the AFI has only recently started to function, it is still not clear whether the responsibilities of each of the institutions of the National Intelligence System will continue to be blurred.
In August , the Senate confirmed both appointments. The nominations had raised concerns in human right groups due to the lack of suitability of Arribas and Majdalani. This budget contained no detail nor did it mention how much was allocated to each body within the National Intelligence System, which led to a discretionary use of the budget and corruption within the intelligence services.
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On what is the intelligence budget spent? Nobody knows, except from a few people inside La Casa. In More than thousand pesos per day. But… the accounts cannot explain those amounts.
The SI spent 79 million annually in wages, an average of 2, pesos a month per employee. That information could not be adulterated: funds that flowed in wages could not be modified, because salaries were mostly paid officially. About the remaining million, however, there was no information. That amount was destined to electricity, gas for cars, phones… the overall functioning of La Casa. But million were many millions.
There were too many [for those expenses]. The only form of accountability for those funds … was a modest list consisting on a single sheet of paper that was sent to the National Congress. A list with objectives that were too ambiguous…: [it was stated] that [the budget] was invested in wiretapping, in investigations linked to smuggling and drug trafficking, in the maintenance of secret bases and cars, and in daily expenses.
Approximate sums, without any detail, impossible to control, certainly false. Only the funds necessary for intelligence whose publicity could affect its normal functioning may be kept confidential. Such funds shall be subject to the controls of this law.
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The National Intelligence System bodies shall ensure transparency in the management of confidential funds. To this end, they shall establish appropriate [accountability procedures], provided [the procedures] do not affect the safety of the intelligence activities and of those who take part in them" Section 38 bis. A joint committee formed by members of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies controls and oversees the budget and expenditures. Each directorate has to inform their respective ministry of their required budget and is responsible for spending it. With the elimination of the budget administration scheme, the decree removed the distinction between public and reserve funds making all of AFI's budget effectively secret.
The exchange of information between intelligence agencies was increased due to the G20 summit held in Buenos Aires. Several reports emerged over the past few years documenting a system that differed substantially from what was indicated in the law.
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According to Gerardo Young in his book La Argentina Secreta , phone providers were paid millions of US dollars each year to set up interception systems. Nokia Siemens Network also reportedly was providing a Data Voice Call Recording and Acquisition Unit to Argentine phone providers and that the intelligence services had offices within the headquarters of phone providers to conduct interceptions. Jaime Stiuso, an intelligence agent attached to the Argentine intelligence services, was exposed as the most powerful spy in Argentina for years, having managed the former Secretariat of Intelligence mostly outside of what was prescribed by law.
It is alleged that during a year investigation Nisman had gathered phone recordings that revealed an impunity deal between the Iranian and Argentinian governments in exchange for economic benefits. Nisman worked closely with Jaime Stiuso during his investigations, and it is alleged that the intelligence services were involved in his death.
In March , a security and surveillance technology conference called Segurinfo was held in Buenos Aires, and in September Buenos Aires held another conference called Seguriexpo. Among the government members who attended Segurinfo was Sergio Blanco head of the Secretary for Management Technology. Furthermore, Blue Coat was found to have an office in Argentina. A parliamentary inquiry in Germany had revealed that over the past decade the German government had sold surveillance technologies to Argentina.
In July , after the leak of internal information from the Italian spyware vendor Hacking Team, it was established that the company negotiated with several intermediaries in Argentina that said to have ties to law enforcement agencies and State intelligence bodies, but it is not clear from the leaked emails that a transaction actually took place.
In early July , the Mayor of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, Horacio Larreta, together with the Security Minister, Patricia Bullrich, introduced the "Aerostatic Surveillance System" , with the aim of flying surveillance cameras attached to balloons in order to do a degree monitoring of a specific area. According to the Mayor's statement, the system will be used to monitor the entrace and exit routes into the City near the "Riachuelo", as well as "in mass events, when there is a big demonstration, a marathon, something that has to be covered in a large area of the City".
It can be raised in the City and areas bordering up to 30 meters, allowing a o viewing angle, identifying and following targets at distances greater than two kilometers, and recognition up to 4 kilometers". The Ministry of the Interior and Transport and the Ministry of Security largely oversee national security issues. The Argentine Supreme Court has held that the right to privacy and intimacy has its constitutional basis in Section 19 of the Constitution and that the right protects a wider sphere beyond domestic and family life.
It has further stated that no one can interfere in the private life of a person or in areas of his or her activity that are not intended to be made public without his or her consent. Only by statute can such interference be justified, provided that there is an overriding interest in safeguarding the freedom of others, the defense of society, morals or prosecution of crime. Recent cases involving Google and other search engines have ruled on the constitutional right to privacy. On 27 October , the Supreme Court declared that in most cases search engines are not liable for linking to content that could violate the constitutional right to privacy.
The Court held that to establish the liability of search engines it must be shown that wrongdoing was committed with intention or negligence, and added that "search engines have no general obligation to monitor In Argentina, metadata is protected to the same degree and using the same legal basis as content. In brief, the protection of privacy is manifested in the right that individuals other than those conversing may not illegally obtain information on the content of the telephone conversations or other aspects inherent in the communication process, such as those mentioned.
Citing the former Telecommunications Act, which contained a similar general principle to the Argentina Digital Act, and Section of the Penal Procedural Code, which sets out the same procedure for the request of communications interception and of metadata, the Court held that "telephone communication registers for the purpose of criminal investigation While the law does not require telecommunication companies to collect and store metadata, they are allowed to do it and may have been doing so in the past.
However, Proyecto X was revealed to have been used to target left-wing activists and trade unionists. The project gathers as many personal details as possible on individuals. This includes general information such as addresses, bank details, properties, political affiliations and also private information such as sexual preferences, and whether the person smokes or not.
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Reports have also revealed that policemen infiltrated protests and political meetings to gather information. Left wing activists, however, still feel targeted by the government. Speaking to Privacy International, human rights lawyer Nicolas Tauber says he has encountered several cases of people who had received voicemail messages containing tapped phone conversations they had had in the past.
He also said that there has been multiple instances of human rights lawyers who had been victims of burglary and only the electronic devices had been taken. He said his own office had been targeted and while the other lawyers, who do not work on human rights issues, had not had anything stolen, his own USB sticks had disappeared. The Data Protection Act seeks to establish "the comprehensive protection of personal data in files, registers, data banks or other technical means for data processing, whether public or private …, to ensure the right to … privacy of individuals, as well as the access to the information that is held about them, in accordance with the provisions of Section 43 … of the Constitution" Section 1.
Each one builds on the ones that came before — but at the same time can stand on its own if you just want a quick photo tutorial on a specific area. To learn more about a great online class, check out — Photography Master Class. We respect your email privacy. You'll get access to TONS of videos! Color is one of - if not THE most important tool we can use to insert emotion. But few of us really know how. Once you've read through this lesson it's fast and easy you will never think of color the same again! For example It can also indicate heat, passion or even stop!
But there is more, a lot more. Learn how Baboon Butts affect the way we look at the color red! Depending on the shade of red used it could elicit emotions like: Light red - represents joy, sexuality, passion, sensitivity, and love. Pink - signifies romance, love, and friendship. It denotes feminine qualities and passiveness. Dark red - is associated with vigor, willpower, rage, anger, leadership, courage, longing, malice, and wrath. Reddish-brown is associated with harvest and fall.
Here is a copy of the table of contents to show a little of what is covered in this "On target Photo Training" lesson volume Photo Exercise Additional Photo Training In the section on Using Color - We discuss the concept of color management, how and why it works to elicit emotion in our viewers.
The Color Wheel - The color wheel is a graphic representation that will make it easy to select what colors harmonize and which ones don't. Sometimes you will want harmony, and other times you will want to jar your viewer. First — surprisingly — you already have a great one to use as a starter!
Faster than you could imagine, you will have mastered all the buttons, switches and knobs on your camera. You will not only know what they do, but you will know exactly when and how to use each one. AND, all your friends will soon be — mistakenly — asking you for Photoshop pointers.
To get started check out my books. They are designed to take you from complete novice into some pretty advanced techniques. Each one builds on the ones that came before — but at the same time can stand on its own if you just want a quick photo tutorial on a specific area. To learn more about a great online class, check out — Photography Master Class. We respect your email privacy. You'll get access to TONS of videos!
Color is one of - if not THE most important tool we can use to insert emotion. But few of us really know how. Once you've read through this lesson it's fast and easy you will never think of color the same again! For example It can also indicate heat, passion or even stop! But there is more, a lot more. Learn how Baboon Butts affect the way we look at the color red!
Depending on the shade of red used it could elicit emotions like: Light red - represents joy, sexuality, passion, sensitivity, and love. Pink - signifies romance, love, and friendship. It denotes feminine qualities and passiveness.